There are two types of horticultural plant propagation; seed propagation and vegetative propagation. Seed propagation is the formation of seeds via sexual reproduction which consists of the processes of pollination, fertilization and seed and fruit formation. Vegetative propagation is asexual reproduction, and is performed using the methods of cuttings, root division, layering, grafting and budding. We carry out education and research contributing to seed, seedling production and fruit production. Recently, we have used physiological, histological, genetic, and molecular approaches to elucidate mechanisms of self-incompatibility in pears.